This was written in the days of video tape, before the DVDs were issued. However, the notes are still useful, and videotape still exists
The Student’s Book contains for each of the eight videos:
• Watching the Video
Four pages of activities for classroom exploitation. Though these could be done in a single classroom lesson, we recommend allowing a double lesson (90 to 100 minutes) for the exploitation of the video.
In general, the activities follow this format:
Viewing of the complete episode:
• Pre-tasks (Before you watch)
• Watch the whole episode
• Post-tasks (After you watch)
At this level, it is generally best to let students see the whole episode. If you are using the video at higher levels, you might choose to exploit it section by section without this initial global viewing. In some units, where there is value in preserving the mystery, we suggest exploiting section by section without the initial viewing of the complete episode.
The episode is then divided into sections (usually four) for detailed exploitation. Each section consists of:
• Pre-tasks (Before you watch)
• Watch the section
• While you watch activity (optional)
• Post-tasks (After you watch)
• Watch the whole episode again.
It is most important to let students watch the whole episode again, so that they can feel how much their comprehension has increased as a result of the exploitation tasks. This may be followed by a post task.
This activity invites students to speculate on things which are not seen (but are implied) in the video. It also suggests role plays and other activities springing from the theme of the video.
If you simply follow the activities suggested, you will have a thorough exploitation of the materials.
If you have more time with video, you can add some of the activities suggested below under Teaching with video: some techniques.
This section can be used at any time during work on a particular video for reference, or later (without access to video equipment) as further exercises with a vocabulary bias. We put this on the fifth page of each unit as the words may be needed in subsequent work (especially Tell The story).
• Tell The Story
This is the sixth page of each video unit. It is a freer activity, and during it, students will be able to refer to the Vocabulary on the directly facing page. Even in video one, students will be able to say something about each picture. The addition of the present continuous in video 5 enlarges the scope, and from video 7 work may be donne in the past tense.
These pictures may also be used for various paired activities (see below).
The exercises will provide additional work based on the story of each episode.
The Exercises are related to the story of the video, but can be done in a subsequent lesson, without access to video equipment. If time is short, the Exercises page can be done as homework.
A complete language summary of each video for reference. These may be referred to if problems are experienced earlier in the video unit.
We recommend that these should not be used in class, but in our experience the great majority of students wish to have a transcript to which they can refer AFTER the lesson. We have found that students make copious notes and add translations to transcripts of videos, and this is usually done at home, on their own. Such extra work can only be advantageous, even though most experienced video teachers would opt strongly for discouraging their use before viewing.
English Channel I has been designed at beginner level. The video can be used at higher levels by amending the tasks.
We have had to decide whether to use language for exercise instructions at the level of students at each point in the course, or whether to use instructions beyond their language level. We feel that totally confining instructions to the student level in exploiting the video would restrict the type of activities we could suggest too much. We have therefore addressed the instructions for activities at slightly above the perceived student level. The possibilities with video are such that we think it worth the teacher getting more complex instructions across to the students. Ideally this would be done by demonstration and example initially. As a last resort, they may be translated.
Using English Channel as supplementary material
English Channel can be used as a supplement to any beginner / elementary course. If it is done quickly, and extra discussion generated from the Teacher’s notes it can be used at higher levels also.
We have been careful to ensure that the teaching points for each video are transparent. There is no continuing story, so that the order can be adapted to suit the progression of any course at the level.
The syllabus is based on Grapevine and Main Street by Peter Viney & Karen Viney. These have their own parallel video materials, but English Channel can be used instead of, or additionally to these.
Using English Channel on its own
English Channel may be used as a free-standing short course, taking anywhere between twenty four and forty eight classroom hours to complete.
It is ideal for short intensive courses with all age groups.
In a school situation, it may be useful as a short introductory course in situations where pupils have come from different schools or classes, and have differing levels of English. As a short, stimulating course it will help to consolidate a general body of knowledge. It may be also useful as material to complete a year’s work.
Grapevine Videos / Only in America
The same actors (Steve Steen & Jim Sweeney) and some of the same situations (Dennis Cook, Inspector Grant) appear in the Grapevine videos. The following integration chart may prove useful. The video unit numbers do not correspond as Grapevine videos were designed to precede each unit of five lessons, whereas English Channel was designed to follow each group of equivalent syllabus elements.
Only in America shares the same format, but is in American English. We believe that students should be exposed to both varieties, even though one variety will be dominant in teaching materials. Video is an ideal way of introducing the other variety.
If you enjoy using video, you may wish to use two, or even all three, series.
The Video Recorder Controls
Plays the video tape. Note on some machines you press PLAY to release PAUSE. On others you press PAUSE again.
Stops the video tape. The picture switches off.
The TV may revert to a blank screen or to a TV channel. We advise leaving the TV set on a blank channel, or on a video channel if there is a seperate button.
It is also advisable to locate a minor control on the TV or video which switches between LINE (the video only) and TUNER (which tunes in the TV channels). If you select LINE the TV should display a blank screen when you press STOP. Alternatively, where the TV is only ever used for video work you may choose not to connect it to a TV aerial.
PAUSE / STILL / FREEZE FRAME (II)
Pauses or freeze frames the video tape. Note on some machines you press PLAY to release PAUSE. On others you press PAUSE again. This is one of the most important controls on a video for classroom use. Ideally, you should be able to operate this function with the remote control.
Freeze frame will not harm the videotape. All VCR’s are designed to release the freeze frame automatically before any damage can be done. Freeze frame is the most important feature on video players in the classroom, and should be the main criterion in selecting a particular make of machine.
A remote control is probably the next most important item.
Most modern machines (i.e. post 1989) have near perfect freeze frame, so look out for names like SUPER STILL, or PERFECT STILL on recorders. If there is picture wobble, the still picture quality can be changed by adjusting the TRACKING control on the video player.
Older machines have pictures which may wobble when paused and have white lines. The irritation of these can be alleviated by pressing the freeze frame control once or twice, moving the white line to a less important part of the picture. A few light taps on the machine will often move the white line on older machines.
REWIND (<<)/ FAST FORWARD (>>)
There are two types of REWIND (<< ) and FAST FORWARD (>>) on most machines.
The ones labelled REWIND /FAST FORWARD will normally blank out the picture.
Ones labelled CUE/ REVIEW or PICTURE SEARCH will enable the picture to be seen at speed during rewinding and fast forward operation. Apart from being useful for finding the place, these facilities can be used to remind students of parts of the story.
Video tape in the PAL (UK, Germany, Europe) or SECAM (France, parts of Eastern Europe and Latin America) formats has 25 pictures (frames) per second. NTSC tape (in the USA, Canada, Mexico and East Asia) has 30 frames per second. Still Advance allows you to move the video on by one frame at a time. This is vastly more accurate than simply pushing PAUSE. Note: You may find that several frames have almost no movement, while others are dramatic changes of picture.
This is an editing facility which can be found on more sophisticated videos and it is a rotary control which enables you to move the picture forwards or backwards as if by hand at various speeds. If this control is fitted, it is extremely useful in the classroom. It is well worth seeking this facility when purchasing new equipment. However, note that it is only available on the remote control of more expensive machines.
This control is situated on most TV remote controls (note TV control, not video control). It immediately removes (or mutes) the soundtrack. By pressing it again, you restore the sound at the preset level. Because its effect is instant, it is much easier to use in the classroom than the volume control for the TV.
Locating the place on the tape
There are three or four sections in each episode. The sections are labelled on the Transcripts pages.
The Student Book assumes that your video has a minutes and seconds counter. The timing is noted for each episode in the section headings. You will have to zero the counter at the start of each episode. There should be a RESET or ZERO COUNTER button on your video or remote control to enable you to do this.
Press RESET as soon as the video begins. You can use a watch or a clock where the video does not have a minutes and seconds timer.
You may wish to record the counter number (or time reference in minutes and seconds on newer video machines) for the beginning of each video on the contents pages.
If you have an older three or four digit counter, record the numbers for each section of the videos in your copy of the Student Book.
If your machine has MEMORY REWIND (or REPEAT), you can reset the counter at various points in the lesson. This control will rewind the tape as far as zero whenever REWIND is selected.
Teaching with video: Some Techniques
Silent viewing activities
Silent viewing means turning off the sound on the TV or monitor and making use of the visuals on their own. This is most easily accomplished with the MUTE control (see above). Silent viewing will be a PREDICTION technique when students are viewing for the first time, and a REPRODUCTION technique when they have already seen and heard the section being used for silent viewing.
Students can talk about EVENTS ( What’s happening on the screen?) or DIALOGUE (What are they saying?)
They will be able to predict dialogue, i.e. guess what people are saying, throughout the course.
Reproduction (or retelling) can also be divided into REPRODUCTION OF DIALOGUE and REPRODUCTION OF EVENTS. Reproduction of dialogue might be most effective where there are useful formulas, fixed expressions and points of intonation or pronunciation. Reproduction of events tends to focus on narrative tenses, and on sequences.
c) Random sound down (Cloze listening
This may be done at any time, but is particularly suitable when viewing the whole episode again. Turn the sound down or mute the sound at random intervals asking students to fill in the missing dialogue.
Sound only activities
You can play a section of one of the videos with the picture turned off so that they hear the dialogue but are unable to see the action. This can be done by using the brightness controls on the television, by unplugging the picture connectors (BNC or yellow phono leads, on sets where sound and picture have separate leads) or most simply by placing something in front of the screen, such as a jacket or a sheet of cardboard.
Students can be asked either to predict what is happening visually, or to use the dialogue as a memory spur to recall what happened visually.
See ‘Random Sound Down’ above. A parallel activity can also be done by obscuring the picture with card at random intervals.
Freeze framing (still picture) activities
Freeze framing means stopping the picture, using the FREEZE FRAME, STILL or PAUSE (II or > I <) control.
FRAME ADVANCE or STILL ADVANCE is a very useful control found on some modern machines, moving the still picture forward one frame at a time. It can be used to explore the nuances of an event or of a facial reaction.
a) Prediction (What next?
Prediction occurs when freeze framing is used during the initial viewing of a section. You can freeze frame and ask about either EVENTS (What’s going to happen?) or DIALOGUE (What are they saying? / What are they going to say next? ). See Silent Viewing above.
When students have already seen a section, they will be using memory to reproduce either what is being said, or to describe what is happening, or what has just happened.
c) Using the background
Video contains 25 pictures per second (or 30 in NTSC areas), and there is a wealth of detail in the background of the pictures which can be exploited by freeze framing. Teachers can often find something new even when they have done a particular lesson many times. The background also gives access to material about British life and culture.
One of the main differences between videos designed for educational broadcast and videos designed for classroom use lies in the presumption of the teacher’s ability to use freeze frame to explore and exploit background detail. The camera does not need to linger on things in the background, they can always be singled out later with the freeze frame control.
d) Thoughts and emotions
Video gives us an additional dimension of information about characters’ body language, facial expressions, gesture, stance, reaction and response. This information can be exploited in the classroom. Freeze frame and ask about feelings and emotions. In some activities Students can deduce further information about the characters, based on what they have picked up from the video, but requiring the use of their imagination.
Paired Viewing Activities
Paired activities take more effort in setting up, but the results justify the trouble.
In this activity one student in each pair turns their back to the screen. The other student faces the screen, and the video is played silently. The student who can see the screen describes what they can see to their partner.
Both students will wish to hear the dialogue later.
The ‘passive’ student in each pair will be motivated to see what they have missed as well! It is worth making sure that the partners swop roles, or that the activity is done twice, with different sections so that each partner gets a chance to perform the ‘active’ role.
This is more difficult to organise, as it involves sending half the class out of the room while the remaining half watch a section of a video. When they return they are told about the video in pairs by those who saw it. (See the note above about swopping roles.) In school situations, this can be done by team teaching, and working with two parallel classes at the same time.
c) Split class: Description / Narration
Half the class is sent out. The remainder watch a section silently. Then the two halves swop places. The ones that were outside now listen to the same section with the picture covered (see: Sound only, above.) The students are then paired off. One student in each pair has SEEN the video, but hasn’t heard the dialogue. The other student has only HEARD the dialogue. They work together to piece the story together.
In all of these activities, the sixth page of each video unit, Tell the Story, can be used as a prompt.
Students can be asked to role play sequences they have seen in any videos.
We have found it more interesting to get them to role play things which are NOT seen in the video, but which they can guess from having seen the video.
The recommended dictionaries at the level is The Oxford Elementary LearnerÕs Dictionary of English. or The Oxford Wordpower Dictionary Even at this early level, it is worth encouraging the use of a monolingual dictionary, though most students will wish to use a bilingual dictionary as a second resort. Encourage them to use a monolingual dictionary first, and a bilingual dictionary only if they haven’t understood the monolingual explanation.
The Grammar pages in the Student Book should be sufficient on their own without using a separate grammar reference book.
The video classroom
We have found that most video equipment in schools is linked to TV sets or monitors by the simplest method, using the aerial sockets. This is a pity when most modern equipment has either separate video (BNC or YELLOW PHONO) and audio sockets (RED AND WHITE PHONO or DIN), or in much of Europe, a 21 pin SCART connector, or (with Hi-Band machines, such as S-VHS machines) special S-VHS connectors for picture.
The use of these connections should almost always bring about a significant improvement in both picture and audio quality, try it! See the manufacturer’s handbooks for your equipment. A copy of these should be kept with the equipment in case of problems. Incidentally, the most common difficulty we have found is that many of the latest TV sets revert to Channel 1 when they are switched off, often making it necessary to reselect the video channel. This does not matter when the VCR is connected by means of a SCART connector.
Another common irritation is noise, and white lines on the blank screen when the VCR is stopped. This can be eliminated by selecting LINE or AV on the VCR rather than TUNER. There will then be no need to switch the television off between activities.
You should always pay attention to sight lines in the classroom and ensure that everyone can see the screen well. This may seem stupidly obvious, but the authors have done video demonstrations where someone has complained (always afterwards) that their view was obscured! In many classrooms, reflected sunlight can cause problems.
Video equipment should be positioned so as not to expose it to chalk dust. The ink dust from marker pens is less intrusive, but still harmful if the board is right above the video machine.
Video tapes store their signal magnetically. They can be damaged by exposure to extremes of temperature (such as being left on a radiator, sunny windowsill or in a hot car) and by magnets and electric fields. The speakers in TV sets contain magnets, and the tubes generate an electric field. The video may be damaged by leaving it on top of a TV set or external speaker.
The authors would like to thank the following people at Oxford University Press for their committment and enthusiasm.
Robert Maidment who directed the videos as well as being executive producer.
Martyn Hobbs who edited our scripts.
Steve Marsh who was the line producer for the videos.
Rob Hancock who designed the Student’s Book.
Timothy Blakey who edited the Student’s Book.